By Darrell Spice, Jr. (adapted by Duane Alan Hahn, a.k.a. Random Terrain)
As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.
Original Blog Entry
For this update we're adding initial support for the Select and Reset buttons. For this we're adding a new RAM variable called GameState to keep track of "Game Active" vs "Game Over".
; D7, 1=Game Active, 0=Game Over GameState: ds 1 ; stored in $A7
We're going to use D7 to denote the state as we can easily test D7 (as well as D6) by using the BIT command. You can see this in the revised Vertical Blank routine were we test GameState to determine if UpdateTimer and ProcessJoystick should be skipped over:
VerticalBlank: jsr ProcessSwitches bit GameState bpl NotActive jsr UpdateTimer jsr ProcessJoystick NotActive: jsr PositionObjects jsr SetObjectColors jsr PrepScoreForDisplay rts ; ReTurn from Subroutine
ProcessSwitches will check SWCHB to see if RESET is pressed. If so, it'll start up a new game. If not, it'll check if SELECT is pressed, and if so cancel an active game.
ProcessSwitches: lda SWCHB ; load in the state of the switches lsr ; D0 is now in C bcs NotReset ; if D0 was on, the RESET switch was not held jsr InitPos ; Prep for new game lda #%10000000 sta GameState ; set D7 on to signify Game Active rts NotReset: lsr ; D1 is now in C bcs NotSelect lda #0 sta GameState ; clear D7 to signify Game Over NotSelect: rts
In the next update ProcessSwitches will be expanded upon so that the Select routine will let you select a game variation (and if you check the source you'll see a new Arena layout is already in place for that).
In order to visually show you that the game is over, I've revised the Color routines to color cycle if the game is not active.
SetObjectColors: lda #$FF sta Temp2 ; default to color mask and ColorCycle ; color cycle bit GameState bpl SOCgameover lda #0 ; if game is active, no color cycle SOCgameover: sta Temp ldx #4 ; we're going to set 5 colors (0-4) ldy #4 ; default to the color entries in the table (0-4) lda SWCHB ; read the state of the console switches and #%00001000 ; test state of D3, the TV Type switch bne SOCloop ; if D3=1 then use color ldy #$0f sty Temp2 ; set B&W mask ldy #9 ; else use the b&w entries in the table (5-9) SOCloop: lda Colors,y ; get the color or b&w value eor Temp ; color cycle and Temp2 ; B&W mask sta COLUP0-1,x ; and set it dey ; decrease Y dex ; decrease X bne SOCloop ; Branch Not Equal to Zero lda Colors,y ; get the Arena color eor Temp ; color cycle and Temp2 ; B&W mask sta ArenaColor ; save in RAM for Kernal Usage rts ; ReTurn from Subroutine
Color cycle example:
B&W Color Cycle example:
The ROM and the source are at the bottom of my blog entry.
Other Assembly Language Tutorials
Step 8: Select and Reset Support
This book was written in English, not computerese. It's written for Atari users, not for professional programmers (though they might find it useful).
This book only assumes a working knowledge of BASIC. It was designed to speak directly to the amateur programmer, the part-time computerist. It should help you make the transition from BASIC to machine language with relative ease.
The 6502 Instruction Set broken down into 6 groups.
Nice, simple instruction set in little boxes (not made out of ticky-tacky).
This book shows how to put together a large machine language program. All of the fundamentals were covered in Machine Language for Beginners. What remains is to put the rules to use by constructing a working program, to take the theory into the field and show how machine language is done.
An easy-to-read page from The Second Book Of Machine Language.
A useful page from Assembly Language Programming for the Atari Computers.
Continually strives to remain the largest and most complete source for 6502-related information in the world.
By John Pickens. Updated by Bruce Clark.
Below are direct links to the most important pages.
Goes over each of the internal registers and their use.
Gives a summary of whole instruction set.
Describes each of the 6502 memory addressing modes.
Describes the complete instruction set in detail.
Cycle counting is an important aspect of Atari 2600 programming. It makes possible the positioning of sprites, the drawing of six-digit scores, non-mirrored playfield graphics and many other cool TIA tricks that keep every game from looking like Combat.
Atari 2600 programming is different from any other kind of programming in many ways. Just one of these ways is the flow of the program.
The "bankswitching bible." Also check out the Atari 2600 Fun Facts and Information Guide and this post about bankswitching by SeaGtGruff at AtariAge.
Atari 2600 programming specs (HTML version).
Links to useful information, tools, source code, and documentation.
Atari 2600 programming site based on Garon's "The Dig," which is now dead.
Includes interactive color charts, an NTSC/PAL color conversion tool, and Atari 2600 color compatibility tools that can help you quickly find colors that go great together.
Adapted information and charts related to Atari 2600 music and sound.
A guide and a check list for finished carts.
A multi-platform Atari 2600 VCS emulator. It has a built-in debugger to help you with your works in progress or you can use it to study classic games. Stella finally got Atari 2600 quality sound in December of 2018. Until version 6.0, the game sounds in Stella were mostly OK, but not great. Now it's almost impossible to tell the difference between the sound effects in Stella and a real Atari 2600.
A very good emulator that can also be embedded on your own web site so people can play the games you make online. It's much better than JStella.
If assembly language seems a little too hard, don't worry. You can always try to make Atari 2600 games the faster, easier way with batari Basic.
Did you know that Trump's rushed experimental rona jab has less than one percent overall benefit? It also has many possible horrible side effects. Some brainwashed rona jab cultists claim that there are no victims of the jab, but person after person will post what the jab did to them, a friend, or a family member on web sites such as Facebook and Twitter and they'll be lucky if they don't get banned soon after. Posting the truth is “misinformation” don't you know. Awakened sheep might turn into lions, so powerful people will do just about anything to keep the sheep from waking up.
Check out these videos:
Take a look at my page called The H Word and Beyond. You might also want to look at my page called Zinc and Quercetin. My sister and I have been taking those two supplements since summer of 2020 in the hopes that they would scare away the flu and other viruses (or at least make them less severe).
Some people appear to have a mental illness because they have a vitamin B deficiency. For example, the wife of a guy I used to chat with online had severe mood swings which seemed to be caused by food allergies or intolerances. She would became irrational, obnoxious, throw tantrums, and generally act like she had a mental illness. The horrid behavior stopped after she started taking a vitamin B complex. I've been taking Jarrow B-Right (#ad) for many years. It makes me much easier to live with.
Unfermented soy is bad! “When she stopped eating soy, the mental problems went away.” Fermented soy doesn't bother me, but the various versions of unfermented soy (soy flour, soybean oil, and so on) that are used in all kinds of products these days causes a negative mental health reaction in me that a vitamin B complex can't tame. The sinister encroachment of soy has made the careful reading of ingredients a necessity.
If you are overweight, have type II diabetes, or are worried about the condition of your heart, check out the videos by Ken D Berry, William Davis, and Ivor Cummins. It seems that most people should avoid wheat, not just those who have a wheat allergy or celiac disease. Check out these books: Undoctored (#ad), Wheat Belly (#ad), and Eat Rich, Live Long (#ad).
Negative ions are good for us. You might want to avoid positive ion generators and ozone generators. A plain old air cleaner is better than nothing, but one that produces negative ions makes the air in a room fresher and easier for me to breathe. It also helps to brighten my mood.
Never litter. Toss it in the trash or take it home. Do not throw it on the ground. Also remember that good people clean up after themselves at home, out in public, at a campsite and so on. Leave it better than you found it.
Seems like more people than ever finally care about water, land, and air pollution, but the climate change cash grab scam is designed to put more of your money into the bank accounts of greedy politicians. Those power-hungry schemers try to trick us with bad data and lies about overpopulation while pretending to be caring do-gooders. Trying to eliminate pollution is a good thing, but the carbon footprint of the average law-abiding human right now is actually making the planet greener instead of killing it.
Eliminating farms and ranches, eating bugs, getting locked down in 15-minute cities, owning nothing, using digital currency (with expiration dates) that is tied to your social credit score, and paying higher taxes will not make things better and “save the Earth.” All that stuff is part of an agenda that has nothing to do with making the world a better place for the average person. It's all about control, depopulation, and making things better for the ultra-rich. They just want enough peasants left alive to keep things running smoothly.
Watch these two YouTube videos for more information:
Charlie Robinson had some good advice about waking up normies (see the link to the video below). He said instead of verbally unloading or being nasty or acting like a bully, ask the person a question. Being nice and asking a question will help the person actually think about the subject.
View this page and any external web sites at your own risk. I am not responsible for any possible spiritual, emotional, physical, financial or any other damage to you, your friends, family, ancestors, or descendants in the past, present, or future, living or dead, in this dimension or any other.
Use any example programs at your own risk. I am not responsible if they blow up your computer or melt your Atari 2600. Use assembly language at your own risk. I am not responsible if assembly language makes you cry or gives you brain damage.