By Robert M (adapted by Duane Alan Hahn, a.k.a. Random Terrain)
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Page Table of Contents
In lesson one we learned what a bit is. In lesson 2 we learned how to use bits to enumerate lists of items. In this lesson we are going to learn how to use bits to encode information.
Before we study codes, however, we need to take a detour and learn some new terminology. When we enumerated, we saw that with 1 bit we can enumerate 2 items 0 and 1. With 2 bits we can enumerate up to 4 items 00, 01, 10 and 11. So on and so on, such that given N bits we can enumerate up to 2^N items. As you can guess, it is a very common practice to combine bits together for the purpose of enumeration. Some combinations are used so frequently in programming that they have been given special names:
1 bit = a bit
3 bits = an Octet -> Since it can enumerate 8 items.
4 bits = a nybble
8 bits = a byte
16 bits = a word
I will be using these terms in all future lessons so get comfortable with them now. For example the Atari 2600 has 128 bytes of RAM. How many bits is that? ANSWER: 128 bytes * 8 bits/byte = 1024 bits. What is RAM? Don't worry I will explain that in a later lesson.
If you are sharp eyed you may have noticed something about the naming of the bit strings above. Except for the octet each one is a power of 2! 2^0=1 (bit), 2^1=2(no name), 2^2=4(nybble), 2^3=8(byte), 2^4=16(word). This is no accident. Computers are based on bits and manipulate bits hence powers of two are a natural occurrence in digital computers. So these numbers appear very often in programming. As a programmer you will find there are advantages to using powers of 2 in your programming. The odd Octet will become clear in Lesson 4.
All enumerations are codes, but not all codes are enumerations. What does that mean? It means that enumerations are one type of binary code. In lesson 2, we enCODEd the type of fruit (Apple, orange, banana, cherry) using bits. What makes enumerations special codes is that they exactly match the binary numbering system used in computers for arithmetic so: Apple = 00 = zero, orange = 01 = one, banana = 10 = two, cherry = 11 = three. We don't have to encode our types of fruit that way we could encode them as Apple = 10110, Orange = 10000, bandana = 10111, cherry = 11000, but this is now a code and not an enumeration.
One of the most important codes you will become familiar with is Operation Codes. Every microprocessor (CPU) has what is called an instruction set or a set of operation codes. Operation codes is often abbreviated as opcodes. Operation codes are the executable (as opposed to pure information) part of your program. The hardware of the microprocessor reads each opcode in the sequence of the program and performs the action demanded. Later in this course we will explore all of the opcodes in the 6507 microprocessor (the processor in the Atari 2600) in detail. In the 6507 instruction set each opcode is 8-bits long, or 1 byte. The opcodes are not an enumeration, they take all sorts of values using 8 bits within a byte often skipping many bit combinations that would make the code an enumeration. The bits set in each opcode were chosen because they simplified the work of the engineers to build the logic circuits in the microprocessor.
A gray code is a special kind of binary code of N bits. Gray codes are used for counting 0, 1, 2, 3, etc. Gray codes are special in that each time you add or subtract 1 from the code, only 1 bit will change. Here is an example of a 2-bit gray code:
00 = zero
01 = one
11 = two
10 = three
00 = zero (pattern is repeating...)
You can see that only one bit changes as you count up or down through the 4 combinations. Gray codes are handy in situations where you want to minimize the amount of hardware needed to implement a counting circuit in a computer. In the Atari 2600, the driving controllers (Indy 500) use a 2 bit gray code to encode the direction the paddle is being turned, the speed at which the code changes indicates the speed the paddle is turning at.
Binary Coded Decimal or BCD is a method for storing decimal numbers in an easy (sometimes) to use format within a computer. You are already aware of decimal numbers you use them to count all the time: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, etc. In BCD each decimal digit is encoded into a separate nybble = 4 bits.
decimal = binary
0 = 0000
1 = 0001
2 = 0010
3 = 0011
4 = 0100
5 = 0101
6 = 0110
7 = 0111
8 = 1000
9 = 1001
Each byte contains 2 nybbles, so each byte can hold 2 BCD digits (00 to 99 decimal). This is an important code for you as a programmer because the 6507 processor has built in support for adding and subtracting BCD numbers. The big advantage for BCD numbers is that each digit is confined to its own nybble. It is therefore easier to isolate the individual digits for drawing them onto the screen. So scores are good candidates for being stored in BCD since you want to draw them on the screen as decimal digits. The big disadvantage for BCD is that you are wasting bits each BCD digit takes 4 bits which if used completely could store 16 values, 6 more than the 10 that it is being used for.
Programmers use alphanumeric codes to store text information used by their programs. Each letter, digit, and punctuation symbol is assigned a binary code. The minimum number of bits in the code is dependent on the desired number of characters used in your text strings. If you only want capital letters, numbers and the punctuation marks . Then you need 26+10+4 = 40 symbols, which requires 6 bits (from Lesson 2) per character in the string. Text manipulation is not a frequent activity for Atari 2600 games since the resources are so limited. Some games do display text. If your game will, then you need to decide between storing the strings as characters and then expanding them into the graphics to display on the screen, or store them in the cartridge already expanded and ready to display. Its a trade off between speed and storage space. We will explore such trade-offs much, much later in the class.
There are 2 commonly used Alphanumeric codes for all computers. The first one is called ASCII. ASCII codes are 7 bits long. Therefore there are 128 symbols in the ASCII codes. Many documents on the Internet contain ASCII codes. You can recognize these files in Windows as the files with a .txt file type extension. When you write your assembly code programs the program you used to store your code files will most likely store them as ASCII codes. The other common alphanumeric code is the Unicode. Unicode is a 16-bit code. It contains all the letters and symbols needed to display any known language in the world. ASCII has only the letters needed for English.
The examples above are just a few codes. An infinite number of codes is possible because as we learned in Lesson 1, the meaning of the bits is entirely up to the programmer writing the program. Please try the exercises below to cement these new ideas home
Other Assembly Language Tutorials
Lesson 3: Codes
This book was written in English, not computerese. It's written for Atari users, not for professional programmers (though they might find it useful).
This book only assumes a working knowledge of BASIC. It was designed to speak directly to the amateur programmer, the part-time computerist. It should help you make the transition from BASIC to machine language with relative ease.
The 6502 Instruction Set broken down into 6 groups.
Nice, simple instruction set in little boxes (not made out of ticky-tacky).
This book shows how to put together a large machine language program. All of the fundamentals were covered in Machine Language for Beginners. What remains is to put the rules to use by constructing a working program, to take the theory into the field and show how machine language is done.
An easy-to-read page from The Second Book Of Machine Language.
A useful page from Assembly Language Programming for the Atari Computers.
Continually strives to remain the largest and most complete source for 6502-related information in the world.
By John Pickens. Updated by Bruce Clark.
Below are direct links to the most important pages.
Goes over each of the internal registers and their use.
Gives a summary of whole instruction set.
Describes each of the 6502 memory addressing modes.
Describes the complete instruction set in detail.
Cycle counting is an important aspect of Atari 2600 programming. It makes possible the positioning of sprites, the drawing of six-digit scores, non-mirrored playfield graphics and many other cool TIA tricks that keep every game from looking like Combat.
Atari 2600 programming is different from any other kind of programming in many ways. Just one of these ways is the flow of the program.
The "bankswitching bible." Also check out the Atari 2600 Fun Facts and Information Guide and this post about bankswitching by SeaGtGruff at AtariAge.
Atari 2600 programming specs (HTML version).
Links to useful information, tools, source code, and documentation.
Atari 2600 programming site based on Garon's "The Dig," which is now dead.
Includes interactive color charts, an NTSC/PAL color conversion tool, and Atari 2600 color compatibility tools that can help you quickly find colors that go great together.
Adapted information and charts related to Atari 2600 music and sound.
A guide and a check list for finished carts.
A multi-platform Atari 2600 VCS emulator. It has a built-in debugger to help you with your works in progress or you can use it to study classic games.
A very good emulator that can also be embedded on your own web site so people can play the games you make online. It's much better than JStella.
If assembly language seems a little too hard, don't worry. You can always try to make Atari 2600 games the faster, easier way with batari Basic.
Some people appear to have a mental illness because they have a vitamin B deficiency. For example, the wife of a guy I used to chat with online had severe mood swings which seemed to be caused by food allergies or intolerances. She would became irrational, obnoxious, throw tantrums, and generally act like she had a mental illness. The horrid behavior stopped after she started taking a vitamin B complex. I’ve been taking #ad Jarrow B-Right for many years. It makes me much easier to live with.
Unfermented soy is bad! “When she stopped eating soy, the mental problems went away.” Fermented soy doesn’t bother me, but the various versions of unfermented soy (soy flour, soybean oil, and so on) that are used in all kinds of products these days causes a negative mental health reaction in me that a vitamin B complex can’t tame. The sinister encroachment of soy has made the careful reading of ingredients a necessity.
If you are overweight, have type II diabetes, or are worried about the condition of your heart, check out the videos by William Davis and Ivor Cummins. It seems that most people should avoid wheat, not just those who have a wheat allergy or celiac disease. Check out these books: #ad Undoctored, #ad Wheat Belly, and #ad Eat Rich, Live Long.
Negative ions are good for us. You might want to avoid positive ion generators and ozone generators. Whenever I need a new air cleaner (with negative ion generator), I buy it from surroundair.com. A plain old air cleaner is better than nothing, but one that produces negative ions makes the air in a room fresher and easier for me to breathe. It also helps to brighten my mood.
Never litter. Toss it in the trash or take it home. Do not throw it on the ground. Also remember that good people clean up after themselves at home, out in public, at a campsite and so on. Leave it better than you found it.
Seems like more people than ever finally care about water, land, and air pollution, but the climate change cash grab scam is designed to put more of your money into the bank accounts of greedy politicians. Those power-hungry schemers try to trick us with bad data and lies about overpopulation while pretending to be caring do-gooders. Trying to eliminate pollution is a good thing, but the carbon footprint of the average law-abiding human right now is actually making the planet greener instead of killing it.
Watch these two YouTube videos for more information:
Hydrofracking is bad for you, your family, your friends, and the environment.
Although some people with certain conditions may not be able to take it, hydroxychloroquine is a cheap drug that has been prescribed by doctors since the 1950s and it seems to be helping many people who have COVID-19 when administered early enough. (Hydroxychloroquine is also supposedly safe and tolerable as an anti-cancer therapy.) Seems like most news sources are going out of their way to make it sound like hydroxychloroquine is the most dangerous drug in the world, but they also make it sound like it’s the greatest drug in the world for lupus and rheumatoid arthritis patients. They basically say that using hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 patients would be taking that great and wonderful drug away from the other patients who need it. So which is it? Is hydroxychloroquine deadly or divine?
If you believe that a couple of Trump supporters took the medicine hydroxychloroquine and it’s President Trumps fault that the husband died, you’ve been duped. Watch this video. The wife was a prolific Democratic donor, it seems she hated her husband, she used fish tank cleaner (not the medicine hydroxychloroquine), and now she is the subject of a homicide investigation.
Some people claim that the reason so many news sources want to keep doctors from using hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 is that they are desperate to keep everyone afraid to leave their homes since mail-in voting will make voter fraud much easier (the only way they could beat Trump). Others claim that the rabid anti-hydroxychloroquine campaign was to make way for the expensive new drug called remdesivir. Drug companies can’t make much money with old generic drugs, so new drugs must be pushed. Both claims could be true since remdesivir supposedly isn’t as good as hydroxychloroquine.
According to Dr. Shiva Ayyadurai, hydroxychloroquine does four things: (1) stops viral entry, (2) stops viral RNA replication, (3) stops viral particle assembly, and (4) stops cytokine storm. Remdesivir only stops viral RNA replication. Did you get that? Hydroxychloroquine does four things and remdesivir only does one. The doctor also said that nearly 70 percent of the people who took remdesivir had some type of adverse effect. If all of that is true and the more anemic medicine ends up being used by most doctors thanks to the smear campaign against hydroxychloroquine, the average American will beg to vote from home.
In case you didn’t know, Patrick Howley reported that one of the authors of the ‘study’ saying that hydroxychloroquine doesn’t work at VA hospitals got a research grant from Gilead (the company that makes remdesivir). Does that seem a little fishy to you?
Bryan Fischer said in an article that Dr. Fauci has known since 2005 that chloroquine is an effective inhibitor of coronaviruses. You might also want to check out the following three links:
“The Disruptive Physician” had this to say at Twitter: “Meanwhile, regular doctors like me are using HCQ + Azithromycin and Zinc to good effect. One nursing home in NE Ohio had 30 cases - started everyone on HCQ, no deaths. Quick recovery. Why would the MSM hide this? Why would twitter block people who question the WHO?” You might also want to check out Dr. Stephen Smith, Dr. Ramin Oskoui and Dr. Yvette Lozano.
In case you’re interested, here are a few COVID-19 patients who appear to claim that hydroxychloroquine saved their lives: elderly couple Louis Amen and Dolores Amen, Daniel Dae Kim, Rio Giardinieri, John McConnell, Margaret Novins, Jim Santilli, Billy Saracino, and Karen Whitsett (Democratic member of the Michigan House of Representatives).
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