By Darrell Spice, Jr. (adapted by Duane Alan Hahn, a.k.a. Random Terrain)
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Original Blog Entry
Let's review the TIA Timing diagram from last time:
We used that to determine when we could safely update the playfield data in order to draw the score and timer. For moveable objects (player0, player1, missile0, missile1 and ball) if you update their graphics during the Visible Screen (cycles 23-76) you run the risk of shearing. For something that's moving fast, like the snowball in Stay Frosty 2, shearing may be an acceptable design compromise:
That snowball should be square, but the left edge has sheared due to the ball object being updated mid-scanline.
To prevent shearing we need to update the objects on cycles 0-22. There's a lot of calculations to be done in the kernel to draw just one player. For Collect I'm using DoDraw, which looks like this for drawing player0:
DoDraw0: lda #HUMAN_HEIGHT-1 ; 2 2 - height of the humanoid graphics, subtract 1 due to starting with 0 dcp HumanDraw ; 5 7 - Decrement HumanDraw and compare with height bcs DoDrawGrp0 ; 2 9 - (3 10) if Carry is Set, then humanoid is on current scanline lda #0 ; 2 11 - otherwise use 0 to turn off player0 .byte $2C ; 4 15 - $2C = BIT with absolute addressing, trick that ; causes the lda (HumanPtr),y to be skipped DoDrawGrp0: ; 10 - from bcs DoDrawGrp0 lda (HumanPtr),y ; 5 15 - load the shape for player0 sta GRP0 ; 3 18 - update player0 to draw Human
That's 18 cycles to draw a single player. One way to make it easier to fit all the code in is to use a 2 Line Kernel (2LK). In a 2LK we update the TIA's registers over 2 scanlines in order to build the display. For Collect, the current routines are updating them like this:
The actual code looks like this:
ldy #ARENA_HEIGHT ; 2 7 - the arena will be 180 scanlines (from 0-89)*2 ArenaLoop: ; 13 - from bpl ArenaLoop ; continuation of line 2 of the 2LK ; this precalculates data that's used on line 1 of the 2LK lda #HUMAN_HEIGHT-1 ; 2 15 - height of the humanoid graphics, subtract 1 due to starting with 0 dcp HumanDraw ; 5 20 - Decrement HumanDraw and compare with height bcs DoDrawGrp0 ; 2 22 - (3 23) if Carry is Set, then humanoid is on current scanline lda #0 ; 2 24 - otherwise use 0 to turn off player0 .byte $2C ; 4 28 - $2C = BIT with absolute addressing, trick that ; causes the lda (HumanPtr),y to be skipped DoDrawGrp0: ; 23 - from bcs DoDrawGrp0 lda (HumanPtr),y ; 5 28 - load the shape for player0 sta WSYNC ; 3 31 ;--------------------------------------- ; start of line 1 of the 2LK sta GRP0 ; 3 3 - @ 0-22, update player0 to draw Human ldx #%11111111 ; 2 5 - playfield pattern for vertical alignment testing stx PF0 ; 3 8 - @ 0-22 ; precalculate data that's needed for line 2 of the 2LK lda #HUMAN_HEIGHT-1 ; 2 10 - height of the humanoid graphics, dcp BoxDraw ; 5 15 - Decrement BoxDraw and compare with height bcs DoDrawGrp1 ; 2 17 - (3 18) if Carry is Set, then box is on current scanline lda #0 ; 2 19 - otherwise use 0 to turn off player1 .byte $2C ; 4 23 - $2C = BIT with absolute addressing, trick that ; causes the lda (BoxPtr),y to be skipped DoDrawGrp1: ; 18 - from bcs DoDrawGRP1 lda (BoxPtr),y ; 5 23 - load the shape for the box sta WSYNC ; 3 26 ;--------------------------------------- ; start of line 2 of the 2LK sta GRP1 ; 3 3 - @0-22, update player1 to draw box ldx #0 ; 2 5 - PF pattern for alignment testing stx PF0 ; 3 8 - @0-22 dey ; 2 10 - decrease the 2LK loop counter bpl ArenaLoop ; 2 12 - (3 13) branch if there's more Arena to draw
If you look at that closely, you'll see I'm splitting DoDraw a bit so that this is how the 2LK works:
By pre-calculating data during the visible portion of the scanline, we'll have more time during the critical 0-22 cycles for when we add the other objects.
Since we're updating the players on every other scanline, each byte of graphic data is displayed twice (compare the thickness of the humanoid pixels with the red lines drawn with the playfield). Also, the players never line up as they're never updated on the same scanlines:
The designers of the TIA planned for this by adding a Vertical Delay feature to the players and ball (though sadly not the missiles). The TIA registers for this are VDELP0, VDELP1 and VDELBL. For this update to Collect, I've tied the Vertical Delay to the difficulty switches, putting the switch in position A will turn on the delay for that player so we can experiment with how that works. For the next update I'll set the Vertical Delay based on the Y position of the player (this also means the maximum Y value will be double that of this build).
Left Difficulty A, Right Difficulty B so VDELP0 = 1 and VDELP1 = 0. Sprites line up with the same Y:
Left Difficulty B, Right Difficulty A so VDELP0 = 0 and VDELP1 = 1. Sprites line up when player1's Y = player0's Y + 1:
The code that preps the data used by DoDraw looks like this:
; HumanDraw = ARENA_HEIGHT + HUMAN_HEIGHT - Y position lda #(ARENA_HEIGHT + HUMAN_HEIGHT) sec sbc ObjectY sta HumanDraw ; HumanPtr = HumanGfx + HUMAN_HEIGHT - 1 - Y position lda #<(HumanGfx + HUMAN_HEIGHT - 1) sec sbc ObjectY sta HumanPtr lda #>(HumanGfx + HUMAN_HEIGHT - 1) sbc #0 sta HumanPtr+1 ; BoxDraw = ARENA_HEIGHT + HUMAN_HEIGHT - Y position lda #(ARENA_HEIGHT + HUMAN_HEIGHT) sec sbc ObjectY+1 sta BoxDraw ; BoxPtr = HumanGfx + HUMAN_HEIGHT - 1 - Y position lda #<(HumanGfx + HUMAN_HEIGHT - 1) sec sbc ObjectY+1 sta BoxPtr lda #>(HumanGfx + HUMAN_HEIGHT - 1) sbc #0 sta BoxPtr+1 ... HumanGfx: .byte %00011100 .byte %00011000 .byte %00011000 .byte %00011000 .byte %01011010 .byte %01011010 .byte %00111100 .byte %00000000 .byte %00011000 .byte %00011000 HUMAN_HEIGHT = * - HumanGfx
I'm sure some of you are wondering why the human graphics are upside down. If you wanted to loop through something 10 times, you'd normally think to write the code like this:
ldy #0 Loop: ; do some work iny cpy #10 bne Loop
But the 6507 does an automatic check for 0 (as well as positive/negative) which lets you save 2 cycles of processing time by eliminating the CPY command:
ldy #10 Loop: ; do some work dey bne Loop
Alternatively, if your initial value is less than 128, you can use this:
ldy #(10-1) Loop: ; do some work dey bpl Loop
Making the loop count down instead of up saves 2 cycles, but doing so requires the graphics to be upside down. 2 cycles doesn't sound like much, but in a scanline that's 2.6% of your processing time and saving it might be what allows you to update everything you want. In Kernels I've written, I often use every cycle—and that includes eliminating the sta WSYNC to buy back 3 cycles of processing time. See the reposition kernels in this post about Draconian.
I've also added joystick support that will let you move around the players. Pressing FIRE will slow down the movement, making it easier to line things up. The score (on the left) is used to display player0's Y position, and the timer is used for player1. As an added bonus, I'm showing how you can save ROM space by creating graphics that only face in one direction by using REFP0 and REFP1 (REFlect Player) to make the graphics face the other way. The routine's fairly sizable, so I'm not posting it here. Download the source code and check it out!
The ROM and the source are at the bottom of my blog entry.
Other Assembly Language Tutorials
Step 4: 2 Line Kernel
This book was written in English, not computerese. It's written for Atari users, not for professional programmers (though they might find it useful).
This book only assumes a working knowledge of BASIC. It was designed to speak directly to the amateur programmer, the part-time computerist. It should help you make the transition from BASIC to machine language with relative ease.
The 6502 Instruction Set broken down into 6 groups.
Nice, simple instruction set in little boxes (not made out of ticky-tacky).
This book shows how to put together a large machine language program. All of the fundamentals were covered in Machine Language for Beginners. What remains is to put the rules to use by constructing a working program, to take the theory into the field and show how machine language is done.
An easy-to-read page from The Second Book Of Machine Language.
A useful page from Assembly Language Programming for the Atari Computers.
Continually strives to remain the largest and most complete source for 6502-related information in the world.
By John Pickens. Updated by Bruce Clark.
Below are direct links to the most important pages.
Goes over each of the internal registers and their use.
Gives a summary of whole instruction set.
Describes each of the 6502 memory addressing modes.
Describes the complete instruction set in detail.
Cycle counting is an important aspect of Atari 2600 programming. It makes possible the positioning of sprites, the drawing of six-digit scores, non-mirrored playfield graphics and many other cool TIA tricks that keep every game from looking like Combat.
Atari 2600 programming is different from any other kind of programming in many ways. Just one of these ways is the flow of the program.
The "bankswitching bible." Also check out the Atari 2600 Fun Facts and Information Guide and this post about bankswitching by SeaGtGruff at AtariAge.
Atari 2600 programming specs (HTML version).
Links to useful information, tools, source code, and documentation.
Atari 2600 programming site based on Garon's "The Dig," which is now dead.
Includes interactive color charts, an NTSC/PAL color conversion tool, and Atari 2600 color compatibility tools that can help you quickly find colors that go great together.
Adapted information and charts related to Atari 2600 music and sound.
A guide and a check list for finished carts.
A multi-platform Atari 2600 VCS emulator. It has a built-in debugger to help you with your works in progress or you can use it to study classic games. Stella finally got Atari 2600 quality sound in December of 2018. Until version 6.0, the game sounds in Stella were mostly OK, but not great. Now it's almost impossible to tell the difference between the sound effects in Stella and a real Atari 2600.
A very good emulator that can also be embedded on your own web site so people can play the games you make online. It's much better than JStella.
If assembly language seems a little too hard, don't worry. You can always try to make Atari 2600 games the faster, easier way with batari Basic.
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Check out these videos:
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Some people appear to have a mental illness because they have a vitamin B deficiency. For example, the wife of a guy I used to chat with online had severe mood swings which seemed to be caused by food allergies or intolerances. She would became irrational, obnoxious, throw tantrums, and generally act like she had a mental illness. The horrid behavior stopped after she started taking a vitamin B complex. I've been taking Jarrow B-Right (#ad) for many years. It makes me much easier to live with.
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If you are overweight, have type II diabetes, or are worried about the condition of your heart, check out the videos by Ken D Berry, William Davis, and Ivor Cummins. It seems that most people should avoid wheat, not just those who have a wheat allergy or celiac disease. Check out these books: Undoctored (#ad), Wheat Belly (#ad), and Eat Rich, Live Long (#ad).
Negative ions are good for us. You might want to avoid positive ion generators and ozone generators. A plain old air cleaner is better than nothing, but one that produces negative ions makes the air in a room fresher and easier for me to breathe. It also helps to brighten my mood.
Never litter. Toss it in the trash or take it home. Do not throw it on the ground. Also remember that good people clean up after themselves at home, out in public, at a campsite and so on. Leave it better than you found it.
Seems like more people than ever finally care about water, land, and air pollution, but the climate change cash grab scam is designed to put more of your money into the bank accounts of greedy politicians. Those power-hungry schemers try to trick us with bad data and lies about overpopulation while pretending to be caring do-gooders. Trying to eliminate pollution is a good thing, but the carbon footprint of the average law-abiding human right now is actually making the planet greener instead of killing it.
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Watch these two YouTube videos for more information:
Charlie Robinson had some good advice about waking up normies (see the link to the video below). He said instead of verbally unloading or being nasty or acting like a bully, ask the person a question. Being nice and asking a question will help the person actually think about the subject.
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Use any example programs at your own risk. I am not responsible if they blow up your computer or melt your Atari 2600. Use assembly language at your own risk. I am not responsible if assembly language makes you cry or gives you brain damage.